Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Does "Self-Regulation" Address All We Need to Know About a Child's Sense of Agency




As I searched for information about Self-Regulations, I found a number of labels that are used to describe the same kind of “Affective” Skills: Self-Management, Self-Control, Emotional Development, and  Hot-Cognition.  Here are a few links that address Executive Function

“The data just keeps coming in about the importance of focus, self-control and working memory for learning and life,” Wexler said in an edWeb webinar. One meta-analysis of six studies found that a child’s executive functioning skills in kindergarten predicted reading and math achievement into middle school and beyond. This research is particularly important because students who have poor executive functioning skills because of trauma, poverty, or diagnosed disorders are missing out on learning. Often these children haven’t had a chance to develop executive functioning skills required for school before arriving there.
 For a more thorough discussion of Executive Function

Activities and Programs That Improve Children's Executive Functions.


Thursday, July 12, 2018

Caring About Struggling Readers in K-3. and Their Social-Emotional Development

Understanding Reading Anxiety: New Insights from Neuroscience

Mary Renck Jalongo Rae Ann Hirsh
Published online: 13 March 2010
_ Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

A second grader named Mark reads aloud, the very picture
of impulsive style. Although he painstakingly sounds out
the first couple of words, that effort is followed by a rush of
words—even nonwords—that bear little resemblance to the
print on the page. Mark appears to realize that comprehension
has been lost. His freckled face begins to flush with
embarrassment and his hands begin to tremble.
This child approaches the task of reading with the same
expectation of pain and grim determination that is summoned
up before pulling off a bandage. When Mark’s tutor
asks him to say something about himself, it is clear he and
his family have been stunned by his placement in a learning
support class at his new school. Mark says softly, ‘‘I know I
was smart in kindergarten and I think I was still smart in….

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10643-010-0381-5.pdf

Monday, July 9, 2018

CASEL's 5 Core Competencies and Sub categories


https://casel.org/core-competencies/ 

CASEL has developed a set of 5 core competences.  There are subcategories for each of those 5.  Below are the listings directly from the CASEL site.

“Social and emotional learning (SEL) enhances students’ capacity to integrate skills, attitudes, and behaviors to deal effectively and ethically with daily tasks and challenges. Like many similar frameworks, CASEL’s integrated framework promotes intrapersonal, interpersonal, and cognitive competence. There are five core competencies that can be taught in many ways across many settings. Many educators and researchers are also exploring how best to assess these competencies.”   

 

·         Self-awareness
The ability to accurately recognize one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values and how they influence behavior. The ability to accurately assess one’s strengths and limitations, with a well-grounded sense of confidence, optimism, and a “growth mindset.”
    • Identifying emotions
    • Accurate self-perception 
    • Recognizing strengths
    • Self-confidence
    • Self-efficacy
Self-management
The ability to successfully regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in different situations — effectively managing stress, controlling impulses, and motivating oneself. The ability to set and work toward personal and academic goals.
    • Impulse control
    • Stress management
    • Self-discipline
    • Self-motivation
    • Goal-setting
    • Organizational skills 
·         Social awareness
The ability to take the perspective of and empathize with others, including those from diverse backgrounds and cultures. The ability to understand social and ethical norms for behavior and to recognize family, school, and community resources and supports.
    • Perspective-taking
    • Empathy
    • Appreciating diversity
    • Respect for others

·         Relationship skills
The ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups. The ability to communicate clearly, listen well, cooperate with others, resist inappropriate social pressure, negotiate conflict constructively, and seek and offer help when needed.
    • Communication
    • Social engagement
    • Relationship-building
    • Teamwork
·         Responsible decision-making
The ability to make constructive choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on ethical standards, safety concerns, and social norms. The realistic evaluation of consequences of various actions, and a consideration of the well-being of oneself and others.
    • Identifying problems
    • Analyzing situations
    • Solving problems
    • Evaluating
    • Reflecting
    • Ethical responsibility
CASEL-Wheel.png
Our sincere thanks to CASEL's many funding partners. Learn more about them here.
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Monday, July 2, 2018

Zimmermans's Phase Model of Self-Regulation


A schematic reproduction of Zimmerman’s Model Moving from Forethought Phase to Performance Phase to Self-Reflection Phase
A Cyclic Phase Model of Self-Regulated Learning




PERFORMANCE PHASE
Self-control
 *Task strategies
 *Imagery
 *Self-Instruction
 *Time Management
 *Environmental structuring
 *Help Seeking
Self-Observation
 *Metacognitive self-monitoring
 *Self-Recording




 


            
              

FORETHOUGHT PHASE
Task analysis
 *Goal setting
 *Strategic-planning

Self-Motivation beliefs
 *Self-efficacy
 *Outcome expectations
 *Task value/interest
 *Goal Orientation




                                              
SELF REFLECTION PHASE
Self-judgment
 *Self-Evaluation
 *Causal Attribution

Self-reaction
 *Self-satisfaction/affect
 *Adaptive/defensive




Barry Zimmerman Discusses Self-Regulated Learning Processes Emerging Research Fronts Commentary, December 2011    Barry J. Zimmerman talks with ScienceWatch.com and answers a few questions about this month's Emerging Research Front paper in the field of Social Sciences, general.

********
A Review of Self-regulated Learning: Six Models and Four Directions for Research     Ernesto Panadero*
Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Edited by: José Carlos Núñez, Universidad de Oviedo Mieres, Spain
Reviewed by: Eva M. Romera, University of Córdoba, Spain; Carlo Magno, De La Salle Araneta University, Philippines
*Correspondence: Ernesto Panadero, se.mau@oredanap.otsenre
This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5408091/  This article compares Zimmerman’s work to more current models.   Fairly technical and long but the last section highlights its importance:     
 
Educational Implications   
            Four educational implications will be discussed. Short excerpts follow.

 “First, if we examined the psychological correlates (e.g., self-efficacy, effort regulation, procrastination) that influence academic performance (Richardson et al., 2012), the conclusion is that the vast majority of these correlates are included in the SRL models. Additionally, SRL interventions promote students’ learning (Dignath et al., 2008; Rosário et al., 2012). Therefore, a first implication is that teachers need to receive training on SRL theory and models to understand how they can maximize their students’ learning (Paris and Winograd, 1999; Moos and Ringdal, 2012; Dignath-van Ewijk et al., 2013….”      …..*Self Regulated Learning (SRL)

“A second implication relates to how to teach SRL at different educational levels. Different models work better at different educational levels (Dignath and Büttner, 2008). Furthermore, another review shows that teachers at different educational levels used different approaches to SRL (Moos and Ringdal, 2012), …. and (c) primary teachers implement more SRL practices. There is, therefore, a misalignment between what SRL research says about its implementation at different educational levels (Dignath and Büttner, 2008), and what teachers actually do in their classroom (Moos and Ringdal, 2012)…..”

“A third implication is related to creating environments that leads students’ actions toward learning. All of the models consider SRL as goal-driven, so students’ goals direct their final self-regulatory actions. However, as Boekaerts (2011) argues, students also activate goals not oriented to learning (well-being pathway) and, as a consequence, students might self-regulate toward avoidance goals (e.g., pretending they are sick to miss an exam) (Alonso-Tapia et al., 2014). There is a line of research that explores how teachers can create a classroom environment that is conducive toward learning goals (Meece et al., 2006; Alonso-Tapia and Fernandez, 2008). Educators need to maximize the learning classroom climate for SRL to promote learning.”

“Fourth, a SRL skill developmental approach is more beneficial for learning. We already know that SRL skills develop over time with practice, feedback, and observation (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2005). We also know that students experience a high cognitive load when performing novel tasks, as claimed by cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1994). If we consider what we know on how to design instructional environments to minimize the impact of cognitive load (Kirschner, 2002), then a SRL skill developmental approach should be chosen. Such an approach would consider the four stages for acquisition of SRL, formulated in Zimmerman’s Multi-Level model (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2005): observation, emulation, self-control (including automaticity), and self-regulation. This approach will maximize SRL skill development and has been proposed for self-assessment, which is a crucial process for SRL (Panadero et al., 2016).”
























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FIGURE 13

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Socially shared regulated learning model 2. Adapted from Hadwin et al. (2011).
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Friday, June 29, 2018

Self-Regulation has been a topic of interest since...


TALK Blog on June 29 2018
The Self-Regulation Literature has a history going back to 1980s.  Early Researchers were Barry Zimmerman and Paris and Winograd.  Here’s a brief explanation of a post from Paris and Winograd, 1990:     A Commissioned Paper for the U.S. Department of Education Project Preparing Teachers to Use Contextual Teaching and Learning Strategies To Improve Student Success In and Beyond School. Dr. Kenneth R. Howey, Project Director. [2]
The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation [1]   Scott G. Paris    University of Michigan  Peter Winograd
Abstract
“As teachers are pressed to extend their craft to prepare more diverse students for the challenge of work and life beyond school, they are challenged to provide more authentic instructional contexts and activities than traditional knowledge-based curricula. In order to be successful, teachers must be reflective and analytical about their own beliefs and practices and they must acquire a deep understanding of cognitive and motivational principles of learning and teaching. Toward this end, we examine how teachers can model and promote self-regulated learning for their students. Self-regulated learning is characterized by three central features; awareness of thinking, use of strategies, and situated motivation. These features of independent learning need to experienced, constructed, and discussed among teachers so that they understand how to nurture the same development among students. Then the focus of instruction is shifted to fostering strategic and motivated students rather than delivering curricula or managing classroom behavior.’
‘We review 12 principles of self-regulated learning, in four categories, general that can be used by teachers in the classroom. Within the category of self-appraisal, we discuss how teachers can analyze their own learning styles, evaluate their own understanding, and model cognitive monitoring. Within the category of self-management, we discuss how teachers can promote mastery goal orientations, time and resource management, and use “failure” constructively. We discuss how self-regulation can be taught with various tactics such as direct instruction, metacognitive discussions, modeling, and self-assessment of progress. The last several principles are discussed as ways to help students gain a sense of their personal educational histories and to shape their identities as successful students participating in a community of learners. In the final section of the chapter, we describe an example of a successful partnership between a university, a community, and teachers that enacted these principles of self-regulated learning in authentic contexts of teaching and learning. We note the promises and obstacles confronting teacher education practices. programs in implementing more demanding and contextualized instructional.”




Monday, June 25, 2018

A "Young Children's Model" of Self-Regulation


From Young Children July 2011

“Developing Young Children’s Self-Regulation through Everyday Experiences” by Ida Rose Florez

This article highlights the role of context and importance of knowledge individual children.

“…Teaching self-regulation does not require a separate curriculum.  The most powerful way teacher can help children learn self-regulation is by modeling and scaffolding it during ordinary activities….describe an interaction I observe in a kindergarten classroom….”

“Self-regulation is clearly not an isolated skill.  Children  must translate what they experience info information they can use to regulation thoughts, emotions, and behavior..”

Providing scaffolding to help children develop self-regulation….by “modeling,” “using hints and cues” and “gradually withdrawing adult support…

Florez describes an interaction between two children, “For Tricia, Melissa (the teacher) modeled how to invite a reluctant observer to play:  she turned her attention to Lucy, offered a play invitation, handed her an object and asked her to make a play decision.  When Lucy shrugged, Tricia followed Melissa’s lead and suggested a way Lucy could participate….”

“…To actively engage in learning opportunities, children must attend to and recognize that a situation offers the potential for interesting interactions and things to do…”

“During the interaction, Melissa monitored Lucy’s responses, mentally comparing them to her knowledge of Lucy’s skills….




Thursday, June 21, 2018

Where Can We Find "Models" for Developing a Child's Self-Regulation (S-Management, S-Direction)



CASEL has a range of Social/Emotion Models.                 
Just as important as the SEL competencies are the contexts for teaching them, the overall educational environment. SEL is not a single program or teaching method. It involves coordinated strategies across classrooms, schools, homes and communities, and districts.  





https://casel.org/what-is-sel/                     
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmVhO3nL2EM                          Print the Wheel and CompetenciesEdutopia Video on Keys to Successful SEL

·         5 Core Competencies Taught Across Diverse Settings

Our widely used Framework for Systemic Social and Emotional Learning identifies five core competencies that educate hearts, inspire minds, and help people navigate the world more effectively.


·Self-management

The ability to successfully regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in different situations.

Self-awareness

The ability to accurately recognize one’s own emotions and thoughts and how these influence behavior.

Social awareness

The ability to take the perspective of and empathize with others, including those from diverse backgrounds and cultures.

Relationship skills

The ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups.

Responsible decision-making

The ability to make constructive choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on ethical standards, safety concerns, and social norms.
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