Friday, June 15, 2018

Self-Regulation Development Continues...Ages 5-10

Development of Self-Regulation: It doesn’t just “happen” … a lens for understanding self-regulation interventions across development. ….

This report is the fourth and final in a series entitled Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress. The first three reports in this series laid out an applied framework for self-regulation development.  This is a 50 page report

“• Self-regulation develops over an extended period from birth through young adulthood (and beyond). Although self-regulation can look very different at different ages, there is a pattern of development across cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains in which skills build upon each other and become more complex over time as environmental demands and expectations requiring self-regulation increase….”(page 9)
•” Self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships and is dependent on “coregulation” provided by parents or other caregiving adults. Co-regulation is defined as an interactional process in which a caregiver (i.e., parent, teacher, mentor, or program staff) provides support, coaching, and modeling that facilitates a child’s ability to understand, express, and modulate their feelings, thoughts, and behavior. In co-regulation, caregivers provide the nurturing, instruction, coaching, and support that will promote optimal self-regulation by the child, while simultaneously buffering against environmental stressors that might diminish regulatory capacity….”(Page 9)
“Self-Regulation Development and Co-Regulations for Ages 5-10” [Note the wide age span](Page 30)

Self-Regulation Characteristics
*Use of cognitive strategies and internal speech
*Increased cognitive flexibility, attention control, and more accurate appraisal of situations
*emerging ability to manage emotion “in the moment”
*empathy and concern for others may motivate behavior
*social problem solving emerges
*increased ability to organize behavior in more complex ways to achieve goals

Caregiver Support
*Teach Problem-solving
*Model conflict resolution strategies
*Provide time, space, and support to manage emotion
*Model, prompt and reinforce (“coach”) organization and time management skills
*Monitor task completion while encouraging independence and providing external consequences as needed

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Self-Regulation Development 3-5

Self-Regulation Interventions in Early Childhood Programs (3-5 years) (4)

In considering self-regulation interventions for children during the preschool years, it is first helpful to reflect on the key characteristics of normative development at this age when self-regulation demands are manageable and developmentally typical. As described in Box 6a below, several cognitive regulation skills are developing rapidly along with language skills which support impulse control and rule following. Skills in managing emotions increase and allow young children to calm themselves and tolerate some frustrations and distress. However, in situations where adversity or stressors are prolonged or severe, self-regulation development may lag. To support self-regulation development, co-regulation through the activities listed in the table is needed. Such supports can be provided by caregivers (i.e., parents, teachers, mentors, or program staff) through interacting with young children either at home or in child care settings such as Head Start.

It is also useful to briefly review some of the specific data for self-regulation intervention studies and outcome results for this age group (see Box 7b), the details of which can be found in Report 3 at Interventions in this developmental group include several well-established social-emotional programs like PATHS, Incredible Years, ParentCorps, Head Start REDI, Tools of the Mind, and the Chicago Schools Readiness Project (CSRP). Specific intervention studies reviewed and their outcomes across domains can be found in Tables C3-C5 in Report 3, Appendix C.”

Characteristics from the above link:

"Focused attention increases but is still brief
Begins to use rules, strategies and planning to guide behavior appropriate to situation
Delay gratification and inhibit response for longer periods
Perspective-taking and empathy support protocol goals
Language begins to control emotional response and actions
Tolerate some frustration and distress apart from caregiver (self-caring skills emerge}"

See link above for "How Caregivers Can Provide Co-Regulation

Friday, June 8, 2018

A Quick Read on My First Posting on Self-Regulation: The Highlights

Seven Key Principles of Self-Regulation and Self-Regulation in Context:


And…..several Principles:…(I quote…)

1.       Self-regulation serves as the foundation for lifelong functioning across a wide range of domains…
2.       2. Self-regulation is defined from an applied perspective as the act of managing cognition and emotion to enable goal-directed actions such as organizing behavior, controlling impulses, and solving problems constructively
3.       3. Self-regulation enactment is influenced by a combination of individual and external factors including biology, skills, motivation, caregiver support, and environmental context.
4.       4. Self-regulation can be strengthened and taught like literacy, with focused attention, support, and practice opportunities provided across contexts….
5.       5. Development of self-regulation is dependent on “co-regulation” provided by parents or other caregiving adults through warm and responsive interactions in which support, coaching, and modeling are provided to facilitate a child’s ability to understand, express, and modulate thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
6.        6. Self-regulation can be disrupted by prolonged or pronounced stress and adversity including poverty and trauma experiences….(and, I would add: frequent struggling as a learner).
7.       7. Self-regulation develops over an extended period from birth through young adulthood (and beyond) (Bold mine)

February 2017 OPRE Report: 2016-39 Project Officer: Aleta Meyer, PhD. OPRE Prepared by: Tyler Hatch Suggested Citation: Murray, D.W., Rosanbalm, K., and Christopoulos, C. (2016). Self Regulation and Toxic Stress: Seven Key Principles of Self Regulation in Context. OPRE Report #2016-39. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, US. Department of Health and Human Services.

Monday, June 4, 2018

Five Minutes to Learn About Executive Function

Here is a 5 minute video from Harvard Development Center on Executive Function

Saturday, June 2, 2018

Executive Function and Emotional Development

Executive Function and Emotional Development1M. Rosario Rueda, PhD, 2Pedro M. Paz-Alonso, PhD  1Universidad de Granada, Spain, 2Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, Spain   January 2013  The Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development is a wonderful resource.  Here are a few excerpts:
“Executive functions are the cognitive abilities needed to control our thoughts, emotions and actions. This topic aims to increase understanding about how these functions develop, their role and their impact on a person’s social, emotional and intellectual life, from early childhood to adulthood”
“….Executive function refers to multidimensional cognitive control processes that are characterized by being voluntary and highly effortful. They include the ability to evaluate, organize and achieve goals, as well as the capacity to flexibly adapt behaviour when confronted with novel problems and situations. Evidence from cognitive development and developmental cognitive neuroscience has shown that the development of emotion regulation is strongly supported by several core executive functions, such as attention control, inhibition of inappropriate behaviours, decision making and other high cognitive processes that take place in emotionally demanding contexts.1,2”
Recent Research Results
“Evidence from multiple studies indicates that maturation of aspects of executive functioning, such as inhibitory control and executive attention, are strongly related to increased emotional understanding (in oneself and others) and regulation. Preschool children’s performance on laboratory tasks measuring inhibitory control significantly correlates with their ability to regulate their emotions.7,8 Also, children with higher attention control abilities tend to cope with anger by using non-hostile verbal methods rather than overt aggressive methods.9 Higher effortful control also correlates positively with empathy..”
Implications for Parents, Services and Policy
Increasing evidence suggests that executive function can be enhanced through cognitive training and that such interventions have the potential to enhance the efficiency of brain systems underpinning behavioural and emotional regulation skills in children16 as well as in adults.23,31,32 Recent research also shows that the development of executive control is affected by environmental factors, such as parenting and education…..”

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

A Focus on Learning: Birth to 5, K-3

With a focus on the Learning aspect of Language, Literacy, and Learning, I am going to begin a series of posts on children’s ability, with our support, to become confident and successful learners.  Becoming a learner begins in infancy.  So these early posts will focus on Birth to 5.  Later posts will focus on learning in K-3.  There are a number of ways we can describe the learning to learn process, for example: self-regulation, executive function, metacognition.  Here is a place to begin with a focus on self-regulation.

“This brief provides a framework for understanding self-regulation and its development in an ecological-biological development context. It is derived from a larger report on work conducted by the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy for the Administration for Children and Families. …..”  7 Principles of Self-Regulation….

Some current research:
“Current Gaps and Future Directions for Self-Regulation Intervention Research  In the process of developing a series of reports and briefs based in existing theory and research on toxic stress, self-regulation, and self-regulation interventions, a number of gaps in the existing knowledge base were identified. Research shows the value of interventions to strengthen self-regulation, yet there are many unanswered questions. This brief addresses key gaps in interventions and intervention research examined in a recent literature review. In addition, the brief highlights work needed in intervention design and development to enhance programs intended to strengthen self-regulation, particularly those that serve vulnerable children and youth. We expect that this brief will be of greatest interest to prevention scientists, funders, and policy-makers.”

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Catching UP on Language, Literacy and Learning

You might have noticed a big gap in posts to this blog between November 2017 and March.  Too much going on at home! 

And....I'm working to reorganized my wikis, 3 blogs*, Scoopit and Pinterest curating.  My emphasis will continue to be Language, Literacy and Learning across these sites, with special emphasis on early development and a focus on K-3.  WE have far too many children stuck in the Achievement/Opportunity Gap!   Some of these children  have not had the advantage of effective early intervention and some of these children are dyslexic and have not been identified early or have not had Tier 1, 2, or 3 intervention that is effective for dyslexic children. 



*T.A.L.K. This blog primarily focuses on early language/literacy.

*Classroom Discourse Focus is on a wider age range addressing Language and Literacy Learning 

*Want to Learn Focus is on Executive Function/Metacognition across the age range beginning with preschool.

ScoopIt and Pinterest also focus on these same topics:  Each has several boards!